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This does not mean that the ones who get low marks are not intelligent. Marks are just a medium.
What is important here is that what one learned by appearing in the examination. All examinations need preparation. For this preparation, the right books must be chosen. Different schools prescribe different books.
Each type of book has its own importance. It depends on the students how they use the book to prepare for the examination.
They cost less, are light in weight, easy to career, easily available. They have to the point information and enough illustrations, explanations, and examples.
They are known to help the students understand the basic concepts of all subjects easily and clearly. NCERT questions are helpful not only for students in school but also for the candidates prepare for different entrance and competitive exams. Even though NCERT book has so many positive sides and will benefit the students, they should know how to prepare from it. If the candidates are using NCERT books to prepare for entrance exams, they should find out the syllabus first.
Then decide to study subject wise or class wise. It is important to make notes while studying. They will be helpful later on. But they should know how to make notes. It does not mean that the entire book is put into notes. First, they must find out important points and make notes on them. Most geographers will cite a childhood fascination with maps as an early sign they would end up in the field.
Geographic information systems Main article: Geographic information system Geographic information systems GIS deal with the storage of information about the Earth for automatic retrieval by a computer, in an accurate manner appropriate to the information's purpose.
In addition to all of the other subdisciplines of geography, GIS specialists must understand computer science and database systems. GIS has revolutionized the field of cartography: nearly all mapmaking is now done with the assistance of some form of GIS software. In this context, GIS stands for geographic information science. Remote sensing Main article: Remote sensing Remote sensing is the science of obtaining information about Earth features from measurements made at a distance.
Remotely sensed data comes in many forms, such as satellite imagery , aerial photography , and data obtained from hand-held sensors. Remotely sensed data may be analysed either independently of, or in conjunction with other digital data layers e. Quantitative methods Main article: Geostatistics Geostatistics deal with quantitative data analysis, specifically the application of statistical methodology to the exploration of geographic phenomena.
Geostatistics is used extensively in a variety of fields, including hydrology , geology , petroleum exploration, weather analysis, urban planning , logistics , and epidemiology. The mathematical basis for geostatistics derives from cluster analysis , linear discriminant analysis and non-parametric statistical tests , and a variety of other subjects.
Applications of geostatistics rely heavily on geographic information systems , particularly for the interpolation estimate of unmeasured points. Geographers are making notable contributions to the method of quantitative techniques. Qualitative methods Main article: Ethnography Geographic qualitative methods, or ethnographical research techniques, are used by human geographers. In cultural geography there is a tradition of employing qualitative research techniques, also used in anthropology and sociology.
Participant observation and in-depth interviews provide human geographers with qualitative data. History Main article: History of geography The oldest known world maps date back to ancient Babylon from the 9th century BC. The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean. The descriptions of five of them have survived. Anaximander is credited with the invention of the gnomon , the simple, yet efficient Greek instrument that allowed the early measurement of latitude.
Thales is also credited with the prediction of eclipses.
The foundations of geography can be traced to the ancient cultures, such as the ancient, medieval, and early modern Chinese. The Greeks , who were the first to explore geography as both art and science , achieved this through Cartography , Philosophy , and Literature , or through Mathematics.
There is some debate about who was the first person to assert that the Earth is spherical in shape, with the credit going either to Parmenides or Pythagoras. Anaxagoras was able to demonstrate that the profile of the Earth was circular by explaining eclipses.
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